Based on a predetermined percentage of p -0.95 to limit the differences between devices, the proportion of TDI was calculated from 95% to 10.9 (95% DE 9.4 to 12.7), based on an average square difference of 30.8 (95% CI 23.0 to 41.7). This indicates that the differences between the thoracic ligament and the standard gold values should be 10.9% of the time in ± 10.95% of the time. In general, the researcher must determine whether this interval is narrow enough to mean an agreement. For this data (for which the CAD ± 5), it is clear that the TDI is too large to conclude that the two devices must be used interchangeably. Note that the DDI limits are similar to those of the loA. There are a multitude of methods for assessing continuous coherence in the literature, which vary in complexity and in their underlying assumptions. In this article, we looked at five different methods for analyzing the same problem of agreement that concerns aggregated and unbalanced data; including some of those that are known and commonly used in the literature, and others that understand recent advances in contract research. Barnhart HX, Yow E, Crowley AL, Daubert MA, Rabineau D, Bigelow R, Pencina M, Douglas PS. Selection of contractual indices to assess and improve the reproducibility of measurements in a central laboratory. Med Res Stat Methods.
2016;25 (6):2939-58. doi.org/10.1177/0962280214534651. Note that Cohen Kappa`s agreements are only concluded between two advisors. For a similar level of match (Fleiss` kappa) used if there are more than two spleens, see Fleiss (1971). The Fleiss kappa is, however, a multi-rated generalization of Scott Pi`s statistic, not Cohen`s kappa. Kappa is also used to compare performance in machine learning, but the steering version, known as Informedness or Youdens J-Statistik, is described as the best for supervised learning.  Kappa statistics are used to assess the agreement between two or more advisors if the scale of measurement is categorical. In this brief summary, we discuss and interpret the main characteristics of kappa statistics, the impact of prevalence on Kappa statistics and their usefulness in clinical research.